J Allergy Clin Immunol, Jan 2005: 3-12 - Mirna Chehade, MD and Lloyd Mayer, MD
The Gastrointestinal tract is the largest immunologic organ in the body. It is constantly bombarded by a myriad of dietary proteins. Despite the extent of protein exposure, very few patients have food allergies because of development of oral tolerance to these antigens. Once proteins contact the intestinal surface, they are sampled by different cells and depending on their characteristics, result in different responses. Antigens might be taken up by the Microfold cells overlying Peyer’s patches, dendritic cells, or epithelial cells. Different cells of the immune system participate in oral tolerance induction, with regulatory T cells being the most important. Several factors can influence tolerance induction. Some are antigen related and other are inherent to the host. Disturbances at different steps in the path to oral tolerance have been described in food hypersensitivity. In this review we provide an overview of oral tolerances and cite data related to food hypersensitivity wherever evidence is available.Immune activation in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Gastroenterology, 2007 Mar;132(3):913-20. Liebregts T, Adam B, Bredack C, RÃ¶th A,et al.
Researchers test the hypothesis that irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by a cellular immune response with the production of proinflammtory cytokines and also explore psychiatric symptoms associated with IBS. IBS-D patients who had greater than 3 bowel movements per day with watery stools, pain and cramping showed significantly higher cytokine levels in all categories, with accompanying anxiety.
Prog Med 1989 Feb;80(2):53-5. Pacor ML, Nicolis F, Cortina P, Peroli P, Venturini G, Andri L, Corrocher R, Lunardi C.
Migraine was present in 41 out of 300 patients (13.6%). 38 of these 41 subjects had been treated with elimination diets; 25 (65.7%) obtained a significant improvement of migraine on subsequently performed challenge test. 24 patients were affected by food intolerance and only one by food allergy. The remaining 13 non-responder subjects suffering from migraine had been subsequently submitted to pharmacological treatment.T Cells Expressing IL-2 receptors in Migraine
Acta Neurol (Napoli) 1991 Oct;13(5):448-56. Mertelletti, P
A group of migraine patients were studied for circulating immune complexes, lymphocyte subpopulations, IgG4 and anti-IgG antibodies, before, after 4 hours and after 72 hours a specific challenge test. There was an increased incidence of circulating immune complexes. Total T cells showed a marked increase after challenge test. The most important finding was the presence of T-activated cells. Also K and NK cells showed an early increase after the challenge. In commenting on the outcomes of this investigation, it must be stressed that the evidence of an early lymphocyte activation after the challenge test indicates an involvement of interleukin-2 related receptor in food-induced migraine. The results have reinforced the idea of immune mechanism involvement in food-induced migraine, but it seems to be a different mechanism from that previously hypothesized, with the involvement of the “complex cytokines."The Diet Factor in Pediatric and Adolescent Migraine
Millichap JG, Yee MM. Pediatr Neurol 2003 Jan;28(1):9:15
Division of Neurology; Children's Memorial Hospital; and Northwestern University Medical School;, Chicago, Illinois, USA
A Gut Check For Many Ailments
"The gut is important in medical research, not just for problems pertaining to the digestive system but also problems pertaining to the rest of the body," says Pankaj J. Pasricha, chief of the division of gastroenterology and hepatology at Stanford University School of Medicine.